By Robert Coles
Within the Nineteen Fifties Robert Coles started learning, dwelling between, and, especially, hearing American childrens. the result of his efforts--revealed in 5 volumes released among 1967 and 1977--constitute the most looking out and full of life social reviews ever undertaken by means of one individual within the usa. right here, heard usually of their personal voices, are America's "children of crisis": African American teenagers stuck within the throes of the South's racial integration; the youngsters of impoverished migrant staff in Appalachia; kids whose households have been reworked by way of the migration from South to North, from rural to city groups; Latino, local American, and Eskimo youngsters within the poorest groups of the yank West; the youngsters of America's wealthiest households confronting the load in their personal privilege. This quantity restores to print a masterwork of mental and sociological inquiry--a e-book that, in its concentrate on how kids research and improve within the face of speedy swap and social upheaval, speaks without delay and pointedly to our personal occasions. Robert Coles is a professor of psychiatry and clinical humanities on the Harvard scientific college, a examine psychiatrist for the Harvard college health and wellbeing providers, and the James Agee Professor of Social Ethics at Harvard College.
In the Nineteen Fifties Robert Coles all started learning, dwelling between, and, mainly, hearing American teenagers & their mom and dad.
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Additional info for Children of Crisis: Selections from the Pulitzer Prize-Winning Five-Volume Children of Crisis Series
Whether or not these have been effectively directed to addressing poverty is another matter. We will return to this point in Chapter 6. It would be naïve to assume that decentralization automatically ensures that local decision-making reflects local needs and priorities, particularly of the poor. Certainly there is greater knowledge at the local level about local conditions. But elections at any level are a crude mechanism for ascertaining priorities, so that bringing decision-making closer to citizens does not guarantee more responsive and accountable decision-making.
The difference is mainly about where the poverty line is drawn. However, there are also differences of view about whether poverty is increasing or reducing. The National Statistical Office’s Family Income and Expenditure Survey classified around 60 per cent of Cebu’s population as being ‘poor’ or ‘very poor’ in 1991 (below the threshold of 60,000 pesos per year for a family of four). 5). 1 per cent over that six-year period. Colombo. The proportion of the population living below the poverty line in Colombo is estimated to have increased from 16 per cent in 1985/6 to 18 per cent in 1990/91, with the poverty gap also increasing during that period (World Bank, 1995, p7, quoted in Fernando et al, 1999, Table 3).
There are enough examples from the cities concerned to show that it is not inevitable that the position of the poor always worsens. Urban governance The term governance has been widely adopted in the discourse of international development in recent years, but with varying connotations. It is often associated with normative values, as in the term ‘good governance’ which features so heavily in the discourse of donor agencies (Leftwich, 2000; World Bank, 1997; DFID, 1997). UN-Habitat (2001b), in its Global Campaign for Urban Governance, identifies a number of norms and principles: • • • • • • • • • participation; decentralization; equity; inclusion; accountability; responsiveness to civil society; efficiency of service delivery; sustainability; security.