By Lauralee Sherwood
Animal body structure: From Genes to Organisms 2d version
Keep up with todays speedy advances within the organic sciences with ANIMAL body structure: FROM GENES TO ORGANISMS 2E with CourseMate!
With insurance of animal species that would be proper on your animal-related occupation, this biology textual content provide you with the instruments you must succeed.
Boxes stumbled on in the course of the textual content equivalent to Molecular Biology and Genomics, past the fundamentals, demanding situations and Controversies, Unanswered Questions, and a better examine version offer you examples of state of the art study and assist you see how what you're studying applies to the genuine world.
Check Your realizing questions after every one significant part assist you evaluation the most principles as you learn. every one bankruptcy then ends with a bankruptcy precis, a suite of evaluate, Synthesize, and research questions, and a listing of recommended Readings for extra examine.
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Extra info for Animal Physiology From Genes to Organisms
All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 12 C H APTE R O NE Extracellular fluid Cell Interstitial fluid Maintain Plasma Body systems Blood vessel Homeostasis Make up Is essential for survival of Cells Intracellular fluid FIGURE 1-5 Components of the extracellular ﬂuid (ECF; internal FIGURE 1-6 Interdependent relationship of cells, body systems, and homeostasis.
Similarly, many simple, common homeostatic responses in animals are controlled locally, at the level of individual cells, tissues, or organs. Only when more complex responses are needed is a whole-body (“federal” or “national”) system needed. Let’s examine this hierarchy in more detail. At the most basic level, an individual cell can regulate its internal energy supplies, ion concentrations, and cell volume, at least to some extent. Beyond the cellular level, control systems that operate to maintain homeostasis are often grouped into two broad classes in this hierarchical design—intrinsic and extrinsic controls.
The study of the effects of size on anatomy and physiology is called scaling. An example is lifespan: Larger animals generally live longer than smaller ones. 5 times longer than a mammal of comparable body size. Scaling phenomena such as this one show up in many chapters of this book (the lifespan of birds, for example, appears in Chapters 2 and 12), so it is important to examine this principle now. The most important size effect may be a simple mathematical concept known as the surface-area-to-volume ratio.