By Rowen D. Frandson, W. Lee Wilke, Anna Dee Fails
Presents veterinary, animal technological know-how, agriculture, and veterinary technician scholars with a finished but transparent connection with realizing the basics of anatomy and body structure of farm animals.
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Extra resources for Anatomy and physiology of farm animals
Absorption is the process of taking dissolved materials or water through the cell membrane into the substance of the cell. This can be a passive process dependent on the forces of diffusion and osmosis, an active process requiring the expenditure of energy from adenosine triphosphate, or the result of electrochemical ionic forces and affinities that require no direct expenditure of energy. All three can occur at the same time across the same cell membrane. Endocytosis is another means by which extracellular materials may enter a cell.
The reversal of the resting membrane potential is described as depolarization of the membrane, because during this period the membrane potential is closer to zero. Stimuli that elicit action potentials can be physical, chemical, or electrical. When a stimulus is strong enough to cause an action potential, it is a threshold stimulus. The changes in membrane potential during an action potential are due to rapid changes in membrane permeability to different ions and movement of those ions across the membrane.
Most lipids are nonpolar 22 / ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FARM ANIMALS molecules and thus are insoluble in water. The four primary chemical types of lipids in animals are fatty acids, triglycerides or triacylglycerols, phospholipids, and steroids. Fatty acids are chains of covalently bound carbon atoms with hydrogens attached (Fig. 23). If each carbon atom has four single covalent bonds, the fatty acid is saturated. If any carbon atom has fewer than four single bonds, the fatty acid is unsaturated.