By F. Wulff, L. Rahm, P. Larsson (auth.), Prof. Dr. Fredrik V. Wulff, Prof. Dr. Lars A. Rahm, Prof. Dr. Per Larsson (eds.)
During fresh many years, large-scale results of toxins on marine estuaries or even complete enclosed coastal seas became obvious. one of many first areas the place this was once saw is the Baltic Sea, wherein the looks of anoxic deep basins, broad algal blooms and removal of best predators like eagles and seals indicated results of either elevated nutrient inputs and poisonous substances.
This publication describes the actual, biochemical and ecological approaches that govern inputs, distribution and ecological results of foodstuff and poisonous elements within the Baltic Sea. wide reports are supplemented via budgets and dynamic simulation models.
This e-book is very interdisciplinary and makes use of a structures method for interpreting and describing a marine environment. It provides an summary of the Baltic Sea, yet comes in handy for any marine scientist learning huge marine ecosystems.
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Additional info for A Systems Analysis of the Baltic Sea
When the water is ice-covered, heat conduction and evaporation practically vanish (cf. Omstedt et al. 1997). The distribution of sea ice in the Baltic is described in Bergstrom et al. (Chap. 3). 7 x 10 12 W. This should imply, however, that the inflowing water (-15,000 m 3 S-l) has to be cooled by about 100 K during the stay in the Baltic Sea! The inevitable conclusion is that Henning's heat budget is in serious error and if the whole error is ascribed to the evaporation estimate this should be reduced by some 20 %.
The mixtures form surface layers in the Belt Sea and Kattegat, typically 5-15 m in thickness and of relatively low salinity. However, the salinity of the surface water varies greatly in time in response to the recent history of in- and outflows and wind-induced mixing and there is a north-south gradient with increasing salinity towards the Skagerrak. Thus, the Kattegat and Belt Sea usually store large 22 A. Stigebrandt Fig. 2. Bathymetric map of the Baltic Sea. ;': "";" .. ,::. . . V-2S- 1S0 S-10- 20 Fig.
However, there is a gradient, from the oligotrophic Bothnian Bay to the more eutrophic Baltic proper. While the efficiency of the phosphorus sink is decreasing with increasing eutrophication, the opposite is shown for nitrogen. It is also demonstrated that a nutrient (N or P) that is considered limiting for primary production is also the one with the shortest residence time in a particular basin. Thus, these budgets yield a system-level principal view on how nutrient concentrations and ratios will change in relation to inputs.